Podcast #885: The Important Habits for Changing into an Agile, Important, and Sturdy Human Being


Kelly Starrett, a physician of bodily remedy, has skilled skilled athletes, Olympians, and navy particular operators, serving to them unlock peak efficiency. However as he approached his fifties, he began to see cracks showing within the well being of the oldsters round him. What had labored for his friends of their 20s and 30s, wasn’t working anymore; they had been gaining weight, having surgical procedures, and simply didn’t really feel good.

So he and his spouse and fellow coach, Juliet, determined to put in writing a guide — — that took all that they’ve discovered from coaching elite performers and distilled it into the foundational practices that everybody, at all ages, can use to develop lasting mobility, sturdiness, and all-around well being. Immediately on the present, Kelly unpacks a few of these important bodily habits, sharing the “important indicators” — assessments that can assist you to assess the way you’re doing in that space — in addition to every day practices that can assist you to strengthen and enhance that capability.

Sources Associated to the Podcast

Join With Kelly Starrett

Take heed to the Podcast! (And don’t overlook to depart us a overview!)

Pay attention ad-free on ; get a free month while you use code “manliness” at checkout.

Podcast Sponsors

Learn the Transcript

Brett McKay: Brett McKay right here and welcome to a different version of The Artwork of Manliness podcast. Kelly Starrett, a Physician of Bodily Remedy, has skilled skilled athletes, Olympians and navy particular operators, serving to them unlock peak efficiency. However as he approached his 50s, he began to see cracks showing within the well being of the oldsters round him. What had labored for his friends of their 20s and 30s wasn’t working anymore. They had been gaining weight, having surgical procedures, and simply didn’t really feel good. So he and his spouse and fellow coach, Juliet, determined to put in writing a guide Constructed to Transfer: The Ten Important Habits to Assist You Transfer Freely and Stay Absolutely. They took all they’ve discovered from coaching elite performers and distilled it into the foundational practices that everybody at all ages can use to develop lasting mobility, sturdiness, and throughout well being. Immediately on the present, Kelly unpacks a few of these important bodily habits, sharing the important indicators, check that can assist you to assess the way you’re doing in that space, in addition to every day practices that can assist you to strengthen and enhance that capability. After the present’s over, take a look at our present notes at aom.is/builttomove.

Alright, Kelly Starrett, welcome again to the present.

Kelly Starrett: It’s nice to be right here, my good friend.

Brett McKay: So that you’ve spent your profession serving to skilled athletes, members of the navy obtain elite efficiency, and I believe lots of people, they in all probability know you for the guide you wrote, and it’s been virtually a decade in the past, Supple Leopard, which is simply this bible of various actions and issues you are able to do that will help you transfer higher so you possibly can carry out higher. Your new guide is Constructed to Transfer: The Ten Important Habits to Assist You Transfer Freely and Stay Absolutely. This guide is targeted much less on issues like setting PRs and extra on simply what are the constructing blocks of feeling good and being important general over your entire lifetime. And within the guide you speak about 10 bodily practices after which every follow has a check or some metrics that you just name important indicators to see the way you’re doing with that behavior.

And this guide actually resonated with me. We had been speaking earlier than the podcast, I turned 40 just lately. And in my 30s, I used to be actually… I’m energy lifting. That was my factor, and I nonetheless do it, however what’s attention-grabbing is once I was 35, 36, I might simply go arduous on a regular basis and get better actually quick. About two years in the past, accidents began popping up and it was like tendon stuff, simply overuse my… Your knee hurts after which your hips are achy. After which in 40, it’s the identical factor. And now my shift has been transferring away from efficiency, proper? Attempting to deadlift increasingly more and extra weight to, I simply wanna be sturdy. I simply don’t wanna damage once I stand up off of… Out of a chair. And it’s humorous, I used to be rereading Aristotle, his guide on Rhetoric, and he goes on this tangent about health and well being and wonder and it’s actually poignant.

He stated this, he says, “For a person in his prime,” and he thought a person in his prime was like thirties to possibly 40. He says, “For a person in his prime, magnificence is health for the exertion of warfare along with a pleasing, however on the similar time formidable look.” And I can relate to that while you’re in your 20s and 30s, you simply wanna look Jack, you wanna be sturdy, no matter. Then he says, “For an outdated man, magnificence and health is to be sturdy sufficient for such exertion as crucial and to be free from ache by escaping the ravages of outdated age.” And that one, I resonate with Aristotle on that one. I wanna be free from ache, however simply sturdy sufficient to do what I gotta do all through the day.

Kelly Starrett: Yeah. Right here… Right here’s what’s actually loopy about that, is that we’re beginning to see a technology of younger athletes who observe these rules within the guide as a result of they discovered that it actually does improve the quick sport. And what you’re seeing is, and what we’re appreciating now’s that after we are working with younger athletes who’re making hundreds of thousands of {dollars}, they notice that if they’ll management their sleep and their minimal ranges of movement, a few of these items in right here, they really can prolong their profession. So it means… Means some huge cash to them. After which what finally ends up taking place is that universally, the athletes we work with really notice they’ll go more durable they usually’re really able to extra. And keep in mind, it is a laboratory. So what I’m transferring that to myself now’s, you imply I can get to Friday evening and really feel like I’m not simply smoked, that within the afternoons I can get dwelling from my job and truly be extra current for my associate and my children.

Okay, I’m in. And when my mates say, “Hey, we’re going for a pickup bike experience, or basketball sport,” I really feel like I’m not gonna injure myself to try this. So these 10 behaviors, we selected these 10 as a result of they’re the hinges that open the most important doorways. And concurrently, if you’re not taken with train, you don’t determine with energy lifting, you don’t determine with food regimen tradition. We notice that there’s quite a bit you are able to do to start to have a dialog together with your physique, so that you don’t find yourself simply form of devastated by chance. You took a fall, your bone densities… I imply, simply realizing that the lengthy sport is the quick sport and to what your level is, you don’t should really feel wretched. And we actually haven’t empowered folks so if we use an instance, ache is a superb instance of oftentimes the form of the fulcrum or the catalyst that initiates a variety of conversations with folks about their our bodies. “This ache received’t go away. It used to simply go away. I simply ignore it or take some ibuprofen for few days and it went away.”

And all of a sudden persons are realizing, Hey, I’m dwelling with this factor on a regular basis. Is that this who I’m now? Like, ought to your hips damage? So couple of issues. One is that I would like everybody to listen to ache is a request for change. Except you’ve gotten a transparent mechanism of harm, otherwise you’ve acquired one thing occult occurring, like a fever or an an infection, one thing apparent. Or your ache is interrupting your skill to occupy your function in your loved ones or do your job, these issues are medical issues. They’re medical emergencies. I would like you to go get assist. All the pieces else is typical, which suggests what we’ve stated to a technology of individuals is that ache is a medical drawback. So till you’re able to go speak to a physician or a bodily therapist about it, it’s not critical, or you must simply stay with it.

And what we arrange folks to do is simply to go forward and self-soothe it any method they need with bourbon, with THC, with no matter factor might make themselves really feel higher. And what we’re attempting to do right here is say, Hey look, if we’re gonna untangle complexity round ache, we have to just remember to’re consuming sufficient protein and micronutrients, that you just’re sleeping and that you just’re transferring. After which we are able to additionally say, Effectively, hey, these instruments that we’ve found over the past 15 years to assist restore your place and make you bench extra, nicely they are often redeployed for you and your loved ones when somebody’s achilles hurts or their knee hurts. And we notice that we have now this actual wealthy tapestry of choices that I can drop into my family with out having to interact with a doctor, with out being an knowledgeable, and I can begin to make myself really feel higher and in the end use that as a catalyst to rework how I’m interacting in my world.

Brett McKay: Okay, so these 10 important habits, they’re nice for, if you happen to’re a younger athlete who’s keyed in on efficiency, it’ll assist you to with that. However even if you happen to’re not taken with that, you simply wanna really feel good and important all through the day, it’s gonna be just right for you too. Alright, let’s speak about a few of these. You lay out 10 assessments after which with every check or marker habits you are able to do each day that will help you enhance that. The primary one you speak about is the sit and rise check. What is that this check and why do you assume it’s necessary?

Kelly Starrett: Oh, isn’t that nice? So it is a check that has been nicely validated to point out all trigger mortality and all trigger morbidity. In case you battle to take a seat crisscross applesauce on the ground after which rise up from that place with out placing a knee down or placing a hand down, like you possibly can’t simply pop up and down like each 5-year-old, proper? Ask your children to do that, they’ll crush it as a result of it’s not about power. However what you’ll see is, holy moly, I’m stiff, and that stiffness, I can’t entry my energy, I can’t entry my shapes, and that signifies that I’ve fewer motion selections. So I’m like, right here, stand up and down off the bottom holding this child. And also you’re like, I can’t, I’ve to carry the newborn with two arms and now I gotta put the newborn down. What you begin to see is that it has these observe alongside implications.

The primary purpose folks find yourself in nursing properties, they’ll’t stand up and down off the bottom independently. And what’s notable, I believe is among the issues that we all know is that if we had been attempting to launch a enterprise, save for retirement, prepare for the world championships, we set a purpose and we work backwards from that purpose, however we don’t interact in that considering in direction of our personal well being and behaviors. So if we all know that we have now this easy thought that actually is a pleasant predictor of the way you’re gonna fare as you become old and stiffer and weaker, theoretically, none of these issues should be true by the way in which. Then why don’t we one, put it in your radar and present you that, hey, if you happen to acquired it, no drawback. Good, hold doing what you’re doing. But when this was trickier than you thought otherwise you couldn’t do it, let’s take note of that, as a result of the primary order of enterprise for all of our interventions is publicity.

So the very first thing that we’re saying is if you’re struggling to stand up after which off the bottom, nicely what we wish you to do is begin spending a while on the bottom whilst you’re watching TV each evening. Isn’t that straightforward and affordable? Sit cross-legged, sit 90/90, kneel. It doesn’t matter, but when we all know that getting up and off the bottom finally ends up being a pleasant predictor of how nicely and affluently you possibly can transfer by the world as a result of you’ve gotten extra hip vary of movement, you possibly can play higher pickleball, you possibly can deadlift higher, what you’ll see is that if your way of life is working for you, you’ll ace this check. In case your way of life is introducing what we name a session value, which is an idea we use after we’re taking a look at how gnarly the session was the day earlier than. So that you and I’m going and do some loopy deadlift exercise, and the subsequent day I’m crippled and also you’re not. I paid a better session value for that, proper? My power was down, issues damage, I couldn’t do it once more. Effectively, we are able to begin making use of that session value thought in direction of what’s occurring with my day-to-day dwelling, my motion fluency, the exercises I’m doing, and is that costing me when it comes to this form of third celebration validation check, which is present me you’ve gotten some hip vary of movement.

Brett McKay: Yeah. Okay. So that you lay out the check, it’s actually easy. So everybody can do that proper now, they’re listening to us. You simply sit on the ground after which stand up off the ground and what you do…

Kelly Starrett: Cross-legged. Cross-legged.

Brett McKay: Yeah, cross-legged, cross-legged, proper. And also you begin off, you give your self a rating of 10 and then you definately subtract a degree. In case you do one of many following, brace your self together with your hand to the wall, place a hand on the bottom touching your knee of the ground, supporting your self on the facet of your legs, dropping your steadiness. And if you happen to try this, you subtract. When you’ve got a low rating, it means like, nicely you bought room for enchancment.

Kelly Starrett: That’s proper. And that’s the precise phrase.

Brett McKay: Yeah.

Kelly Starrett: You bought room for extra enchancment. It’s not unhealthy.

Brett McKay: No.

Kelly Starrett: You bought room for enchancment.

Brett McKay: I believe that’s level you made about most individuals go to nursing properties as a result of they’ll’t stand up off the bottom, proper? As a result of like as quickly as you possibly can’t transfer independently, you’re gonna want 24/7 help care there. And it simply normally begins going downhill from there. And also you hear about… Whenever you hear about like an older aged individual, they fall down, they break a hip, you assume, oh man, that is unhealthy. They’re in all probability not gonna be round for much longer.

Kelly Starrett: To not be Mac Cobb right here, however one of many biggest predictors of the gnarliest issues that may occur to you is to interrupt a hip after 70. The analysis is a… Such as you die inside 5… I imply, it’s so unhealthy. And you need to perceive precisely what you’re saying. I all of a sudden misplaced my mobility. I can’t feed myself, I can’t transfer, I’m bedridden, I lose my muscle mass, I lose my conditioning, I lose my bone density, I lose my… After which my mind begins to go and my social connections begin to go. One of many issues that we’re, I believe obsessive about on this tradition is like all of the arduous science, like deadlift extra or wattage, poundage however all the ancillary issues that occur by being in a neighborhood begin to go away in case your world will get smaller.

One of many issues that’s good about a variety of these behaviors within the guide, like consuming as a household, is that we are attempting to strengthen our social bonds. What we present in COVID was that holy moly, the mind is a social organ. It wants different brains to really work and be a mind. And what we all know is that we want stronger households, stronger households which are extra linked to one another and extra linked to their neighbors and their neighborhood at writ giant. And a few of these simple methods are to eat collectively and to go stroll round and nod your head at your jerk neighbor. I imply it actually, it’s transformative. So what you’re seeing is after we begin making inadvertent selections from lack of alternative as a result of we don’t notice we’re doing sure issues, it begins to remove a variety of our motion alternative, which in the end has implications within the sorts of society we discover ourselves in our 50s, 60s and 70s, 80s, a 100, you’re gonna be a 100-years-old. 54% of children who’re within the fifth grade proper now are gonna be 105.

Brett McKay: And so there’s… As you stated, to enhance on this check, the factor you gotta do is simply sit on the ground extra and there’s no…

Kelly Starrett: That will be a fantastic begin. Proper. That’s a…

Brett McKay: Yeah, and there’s no particular method you need to sit, you are able to do crisscross applesauce. I like… My favourite one is the 90/90 sitting, the place you form of put your hips to the facet, that feels actually good.

Kelly Starrett: Yeah. You’re engaged on an inside rotation there. And there’s a fantastic author osteopath, I believe, and his identify is Phillip Seaside and he wrote a guide known as Muscle tissues and Meridians and it truly is like useful embryology… I simply needed to throw it on the market as a result of I’m a physio and I needed to have a bunch of embryology and if I’d had this guide, I’d been stoked on it, I might’ve understood it extra successfully. However he believes that one of many methods the physique tunes itself is that we spend time on the ground. It really opens up our pelvic flooring. It restores movement in your low again, it hundreds tissues, it hundreds your hamstrings, it retains your hip vary of movement good so you’ve gotten extra motion alternative. It’s one of many ways in which our our bodies have engaged with the atmosphere for 2 and a half million years.

Look, I’m not pint… Like I stay in a cool mid-century trendy home, I find it irresistible. However we have now to understand that just some hundred years in the past, we did much more sitting on the bottom, toileting on the bottom, consuming on the bottom, constructing fires, and hanging on the bottom. So it’s virtually like we all know intuitively that, okay, if… This is among the issues that truly helps the physique work higher. Effectively it’s fairly simple so that you can watch TV at evening and sit on the bottom for half-hour. Simply sit on the bottom for just a little bit and also you’ll see that… You’re like, oh, there’s my curler or possibly I’ll roll my calves out. However exposing your self to those larger ranges of movement and fidgeting round, you’ll see aggregates. And we begin to stack these behaviors, these behaviors begin to compound. And if you happen to get half-hour of sitting on the bottom seven days per week, you’re beginning to spend so much of time in these basic positions that do issues like enhance your squat, enhance your skill to run up the hill, proper? Make your again really feel higher, make your knees really feel higher, etcetera, etcetera.

Brett McKay: Alright, let’s speak in regards to the subsequent important signal, which is respiration. When you’ve gotten an evaluation, the breathe pull check, what’s occurring there?

Kelly Starrett: The physique oxygen stage check. So I believe respiration’s had its second, proper? Wim Hof will get everybody going. Laird Hamilton, we have now Patrick McKeown of Oxygen Benefit. There’s so many nice techniques and it’s not just like the yogis have been speaking about this without end, however what we found was, there was a variety of low hanging fruit when it comes to bettering folks’s VO2 max and mechanical air flow. So for this reason this issues. In case you come to me as a bodily therapist, you’re like, “Kelly, I’ve again ache.” There’s three issues we’re gonna speak about day one, it doesn’t matter what. We’re gonna speak about your sleep, as a result of if you happen to’re not sleeping that eight hours, it’s actually troublesome for me to determine is it your mind or is it your physique? What’s taking place right here? Quantity two, I’m gonna make you stroll quite a bit, as a result of I would like you to de-congest your system, your lymphatic system, which is the sewage of your physique, is constructed into your musculature. And if you happen to transfer your musculature, you progress your sewers. In case you don’t transfer your musculature, the drains block up. And if you happen to’ve ever seen a gross sink, that’s your physique. In case you don’t transfer, that backed up sink, you need to flush that stuff and that’s all completed by motion.

So transferring after which we’re gonna speak about respiration. And what we’re gonna see is that if the primary movement of the trunk, everyone seems to be obsessive about it’s okay to spherical your again while you deadlift. In fact your backbone’s speculated to flex and rotate and twist, however the first motion of the backbone is respiration. And what we discover is that, it’s a pleasant indicator of form of vitality when it comes to you could find positions that will let you ventilate extra so it improves your VO2 max, however respiration extra successfully does issues like opens up your higher again so and you set your arms over your head, makes your low again really feel higher, lets you create extra intraabdominal stress while you raise.

And as we came upon within the final 10 years of actually monkeying with respiration, that after we acquired folks extra CO2 tolerant, which is what the physique oxygen stage check does, it permits folks to entry extra hemoglobin. So one of many issues we discovered, imagine it or not, is that individuals who had COVID and smoked, that was a foul deal to have these issues, however they had been extra comfy with decrease physique oxygen ranges of their physique. And the explanation was is that they had been smoking a lot that their CO2 ranges had been actually excessive and had set their brains at being very comfy with these decrease oxygen ranges. Clearly that’s an issue if you happen to can’t breathe. However from a efficiency standpoint, what we discovered is folks whose brains had been extra comfy working increased CO2 ranges, these persons are really in a position to strip off extra oxygen off the hemoglobin. So the physique oxygen stage check is only a easy method of you being conscious of how good you’re at using what’s out there to you.

Brett McKay: And so that you simply maintain your breath for so long as you possibly can. You need… I suppose you intention for 30 to 40 seconds.

Kelly Starrett: You exhale.

Brett McKay: Okay, yeah, you exhale then maintain your…

Kelly Starrett: Simply take a breath, exhale after which see how lengthy you possibly can go, as a result of it seems you bought loads oxygen on board to carry your breath for 2 minutes, three minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes. What you don’t have is a mind that’s gonna tolerate the skyrocketing CO2 ranges. So your drive to breathe is definitely the rising CO2 stage. And what we discover is now… As a result of we’ve been doing this lengthy sufficient with our athletes, is that now we’re seeing athletes be capable of breathe nostril solely, push 90% of their max coronary heart charge, they’re way more environment friendly, they don’t should burn the sugar. But in addition what we discover is, man, if we’re gonna speak about your neck ache and your jaw ache, we have to speak about your respiration. And getting you to breathe by your nostril, getting you to not breathe solely up in your neck such as you’re being chased by cocaine bear, these issues actually find yourself making a distinction when it comes to how your mind perceives you in your atmosphere and the effectiveness of not yanking in your neck each single time you are taking a breath. Think about this, you’re on the Peloton bike and also you’re rounded and also you wanna go quicker. If I say get right into a place the place you possibly can take a much bigger breath, you’ll routinely manage your physique in a method the place you’ve gotten higher entry to your air flow and higher entry to your diaphragm. And people shapes could be utilized to work, to holding my child, to rocking, to no matter I wanna do.

Brett McKay: And yeah, the follow that you just advocate, you simply stated it there, simply begin respiration by your nostril solely all through the day.

Kelly Starrett: That’s one of many practices. Tremendous easy. Tape your mouth shut at evening. That’s grow to be quite common. However we even have some respiration drills you are able to do. And right here’s one of many issues that I would like folks to know, is that I believe we’ve grow to be habituated to eager about all of our well being behaviors should happen in these one-hour blocks. That’s bizarre. Nobody has time to go to a one-hour steadiness class or one-hour respiration class, or one-hour mobility class. In case you do something, I would like you to go to the health club. I would like you to go to your storage and raise heavy weights. That’s what I would like you to do. However I would like you to bury and conceal the reps, all the pieces else. So we do a variety of this respiration stuff on our warm-ups, on our every day walks, throughout… Whereas we’re spinning up on the bike. It’s really easy to combine this stuff into your life.

Brett McKay: So the subsequent important signal is about your hips, and this one actually spoke to me as a result of my hips have been actually achy recently. And so the evaluation you’ve gotten for that is the sofa stretch. So inform us about this check and what’s the sofa stretch.

Kelly Starrett: In case you needed to pin me down and say, “Kelly, what’s the one factor I ought to do from a one-on-one mobilization?” I’m obsessive about you with the ability to take your hip into extension. So if you happen to think about a lunge place, lunge form, that’s hip extension. So standing up from a squat is extending your hip, however really taking your hip into extension is the magic. And what we discover is that the way in which we prepare the session value of our day-to-day lives, we see that persons are fairly ineffective at having good full hip extension and having management in that hip extension. So what we’re seeing right here’s although, there’s a variety of knee ache and a variety of again ache that’s a symptom of not with the ability to prolong your backbone or prolong your hip. So your knee behind butt is de facto the magic. It’s not knees over toes, it’s are you able to get this knee behind your butt. And the sofa stretch, if you happen to’ve by no means completed it earlier than, you must Google sofa stretch, we invented it in order that we might get folks doing it whereas they’re watching TV. And mainly you begin on the bottom, that is the total sofa, you set your knees up towards the wall, your again is away from the wall, and you set your shin within the nook the place the wall meets the ground. So your foot is pointing in direction of the ceiling and also you’re kneeling away from the wall, and then you definately deliver your different foot up right into a lunge, so it appears like form of exaggerated run form, besides your leg is bent up.

Then all I would like you to do is squeeze your butt, take 5 breaths, are you able to increase your self increased, your self extra torso upright, take 5 breaths and squeeze your butt, after which in the end are you able to go straight up and down? And what we discover is folks actually battle as a result of their quads are so stiff, hip is stuff, their butts flip off. That’s one of many causes now why you’re working and wobbling your again and your hamstrings are stiff on a regular basis as a result of they’re doing all of the work that your glutes ought to be doing. So if we are able to get folks to enhance this, it’s superb what number of issues begin to really feel higher.

Brett McKay: After which the every day follow for that check, you simply do the check, such as you simply do the sofa stretch every single day?

Kelly Starrett: You can. We additionally throw in some isometrics, present you the place you possibly can spend a while the top of your day or throughout the day. Simply put your hip into extension just a little bit whilst you’re washing dishes, whilst you’re hanging out, squeeze your butt, simply do some isometrics, maintain that for 30 seconds. We additionally notice that it is a excellent place to do some delicate tissue mobilization, so you may get on the bottom whilst you’re watching TV, roll out your quads, roll out your hips, and also you’ll see that these techniques begin to enhance.

Brett McKay: We’re gonna take fast break for a phrase from our sponsors.

And now again to the present. Let’s speak about shoulders, one other drawback that a variety of guys expertise as they become old. Shoulder is a bizarre factor. It’s unbelievable. It’s acquired this superb vary of movement, however it could get jacked up actually unhealthy. What are the most typical shoulder issues you see within the common Joe athletes you come throughout?

Kelly Starrett: Effectively, what’s attention-grabbing is, give it some thought this manner, you’ve gotten the mind, which is essentially the most complicated construction within the identified universe, critically, it’s, connected to a construction that’s equally as refined. So this mind physique factor we’ll stroll round in is essentially the most extraordinary construction within the identified universe. And your shoulder, let’s simply begin by saying, is designed to final 100 years simply. So while you all of a sudden throw an error sign and your shoulder hurts, we wish you to know that, A, that’s not typical. It’s a request for change. Effectively, what change are we speaking about? Effectively, nobody on the planet connects vary of movement to ache. And there might be a variety of issues. Nothing might change. You can have incomplete vary of movement, shoulders don’t damage. Hastily you’ve gotten a child, you’re sleep-deprived, you’ve gotten a deadline at work, you smash a bunch of pizza, you drink some beer, [chuckle] it doesn’t matter, regardless of the stressors are, and your shoulder begins hurting, and also you’re like, “What occurred?” Nothing occurred besides your mind grew to become way more delicate to your lack of tissue high quality or your incapacity to specific regular vary of movement.

So what we have now here’s a actually necessary system. I believe most individuals can acknowledge or wrap their heads round that. If we had been gonna speak about your decrease again well being, we actually ought to be speaking about what’s occurring together with your pelvis and your leg too. It’s bizarre how you’ve gotten massive muscle tissue that connect out of your backbone to your leg and nobody appears at how nicely your leg strikes. So in case your leg doesn’t transfer nicely in your physique, it may be yanking, it might be tensioning, it might simply be placing mechanical enter into your decrease backbone. In order that’s why we take a look at the backbone, the pelvis within the leg as a system. Effectively, there’s the identical system upstream, it’s your neck, it’s your thoracic backbone, your chest and your shoulder. They make a trifecta of positions. So if I wanna enhance your neck ache, I gotta take a look at your shoulder vary of movement. If I wanna take a look at your shoulder vary movement, I additionally want to take a look at how nicely your thoracic backbone works. Bear in mind I informed you already, we’re transferring in that route ’trigger we’re getting you to take massive breaths and also you breathe in your higher again? Effectively, what we’re doing right here is we’ve acquired some easy assessments for you round some key vary of movement positions and a few isometrics which are simple to get you began on untangling what looks like a sophisticated system. It’s not that difficult.

Brett McKay: Yeah, you bought two assessments. My favourite was the one the place you lay on the ground in your again and then you definately see how far you may get your arm again, mainly.

Kelly Starrett: Yeah, mainly it’s an I, Y and T, however actually in that state of affairs, or if you happen to’re simply… Elbows are out to your facet at 90 levels and also you flex the again of your hand to the bottom, we’re taking a look at how a lot power you possibly can create there. And what you see is if you happen to’re struggling to get to that place, you’re weak in that place. Effectively, welcome to your rotator cuff. And a variety of instances, your rotator cuff, or rotator cup, relying on which affected person is telling you about their shoulder ache, the rotator cuff is that this form of non-specific concept that I’ve muscle tissue that assist rotate my shoulders. Effectively, we take a look at a variety of rotation capability with our athletes, and what we see is that while you lack basic vary of movement in your physique, particularly in your shoulders, can’t put my arms over my head, can’t obtain a few of these basic shapes, your power manufacturing begins to go down, which signifies that while you method a few of these positions at excessive pace, like taking part in golf, that may be an issue since you see a variety of inhibited musculature, a variety of power manufacturing, prefer it’s taken away and now you’re simply hanging in your tissues.

Brett McKay: Any every day practices that individuals can do to assist their shoulder well being?

Kelly Starrett: Oh yeah.

Brett McKay: There’s quite a bit, however I imply, what’s one or two that you just’d advocate, like, “Do these and also you’ll be good?”

Kelly Starrett: Yeah, it’s attention-grabbing, if we take a look at our motion traditions, everybody listening has in all probability gone to a yoga class as soon as. And while you’re in there, you’re like, “Holy crap, these folks love Downward Canine. Why is Downward Canine so necessary?” And also you accomplish that a lot Downward Canine. Downward Canine, Downward Canine. Effectively, Downward Canine is an overhead place. So if there’s one factor you possibly can do is not less than as soon as a day, put your arms over your head. Hanging from a door jamb, put your arms over your head, take some breaths. When you’ve got a pull-up bar, which you must have in your own home, grasp out of your pull-up bar. I can’t inform you how hanging will essentially change your life. Grasp with completely different grips. You don’t even have to hold together with your ft all the way in which off the bottom, put a pull-up bar in your children’ doorway, nevertheless it’s secretly for you. We have now a pegboard in our storage, we’ve acquired pull-up bars outdoors, inside the home, in our storage, and simply hanging will rework your shoulder perform, and rework your higher again. In case you’re getting that hump in your higher again and neck, hanging is the answer.

What I might direct you to is a few form of shoulder movement every single day. And if you happen to did one thing like Solar Salutation, cool. That will cowl it. But in addition, if you happen to’re actually taken with taking the subsequent step, on our web site, we have now one thing… And even if you happen to Google “Kelly Starrett shoulder spin-up,” you’ll come up, and it’s a fast five-minute routine that touches an entire lot of backbone shoulder positions. You don’t want any gear. I exploit it for all my elite athletes, I educate it to all our groups, and it’s similar to every day nutritional vitamins on your shoulder, even if you happen to’re not gonna load your shoulder, even when it’s a decrease leg day.

Brett McKay: Proper. So that you’re massive of the squat, and that’s one in all your assessments. Why is with the ability to get down right into a full squat necessary for human sturdiness?

Kelly Starrett: Isn’t that attention-grabbing? We take a look at squatting as train, not squatting as motion alternative. Decrease your self down off a cliff or a ledge, you’re gonna should squat all the way in which down. One of many issues that occurs is clearly getting up and down off the bottom is helpful there, nevertheless it’s one of many methods the place we are able to begin to expose the tissues of the physique to their full vary. So taking the knee and flexing all of it the way in which, taking the ankle and flexing all of it the way in which. Letting your again spherical in that backside place is de facto necessary to normalize the movement of the again. In yoga, for instance, they name it Malasana, they usually’re like, “It’s a pelvic flooring mobilization.” Effectively, it seems your pelvis and your femurs are linked on to the connective tissue of your pelvis. Because of this while you get kicked within the nuts, you are feeling a abdomen ache. So what we’re seeing right here is that after we restore how folks’s hips transfer, it modifications the connective tissue muscular techniques and restores it to, once more, native vary. But in addition what we begin to see is, man, you’re gonna have better option, you’re gonna be capable of transfer extra successfully, and also you’ll see issues like your wattage enhance on the bike.

Brett McKay: And the check is easy as get all the way down to a full squat, you need ass-to-grass.

Kelly Starrett: That’s proper.

Brett McKay: That’s it.

Kelly Starrett: I would like ass-to-grass. Ideally, you are able to do that together with your ft straight, however you possibly can even flip your ft out to try this ’trigger you might not have the ankle vary. However if you happen to fall over and may’t get right into a full squat, man, that claims quite a bit about you not having full entry to the miracles of your physique. Once more, we’re not arguing about squat approach, I’m speaking about getting up and down off the bottom or taking a poo or having ready for a bus. So that is very a lot a type of use it or lose it shapes. However the analysis is evident that individuals that bathroom on floor, sleep on the bottom, they interact in much more squatting-like behaviors, and lo and behold, we see much less osteoarthritis, we see much less hip illness, we see much less lumbar illness. It’s virtually like if we simply use our our bodies and simply contact the ranges as soon as some time, inform our brains it’s protected to be right here, we see issues like snowboarding or snowboarding enhance.

Brett McKay: Within the follow of that, simply squat extra. Like that’s one thing you are able to do all through the day. I try this. After I learn that chapter, I used to be like, “I’m gonna begin squatting extra.” I’ve been squatting…

Kelly Starrett: It’s simple.

Brett McKay: Throughout this interview. Like while you had been speaking, I used to be squatting.

Kelly Starrett: Oh I find it irresistible.

Brett McKay: Yeah.

Kelly Starrett: That’s what I believe is outstanding. There’s a variety of alternatives so that you can transfer in a extra full method, and that is what each bodily therapist, surgeon, orthopedist on the planet says your hip ought to be capable of do. And if you happen to take all the vary of movement books and also you’re like, “What ought to the ankle be capable of do? It ought to flex this a lot. How a lot ought to the knee flex? How a lot ought to the hip flex? What ought to occur to the lumbar backbone?” And then you definately put them in a blender and shake it up, all these issues collectively find yourself being a squat.

Brett McKay: Yeah, my purpose is to be like a type of 80-year-old women in Southeast Asia which are simply nonetheless squatting, I wanna be doing that.

Kelly Starrett: What’s so cool about that’s, really, it’s a extremely affordable purpose. So anybody who’s beginning this… For some folks, it’s gonna be a brutal awakening. You’re like, “Oh, I believed I used to be tremendous match. I’m doing Peloton and I do my quarter squats and I look good bare, however I can’t transfer very nicely.” And we’ve actually seen a hinge transfer in direction of motion tradition. And one of many issues that I would like everybody to listen to is that muscle tissue and tissues are like obedient canine, and there’s no purpose… Sure, it’s gonna be more durable to keep up your muscle mass as you become old, however there’s no purpose you need to lose your vary of movement ever at any age. So one of many issues you possibly can completely do your entire life is definitely have entry to your vary of movement, ’trigger you possibly can think about in case your elbows acquired stiff, abruptly you’re like, “Effectively, that’s not a giant deal. I simply can’t feed myself anymore.” You understand what I imply? That’s loopy. In case your life trusted getting up and down, then you definately could be actually good at getting up and down. I used to be simply in Japan with some mates and we had been staying at this cool mountain resort as we had been performing some backcountry snowboarding, and one in all our mates acquired sick and I used to be like, “Hey, I actually mustn’t spend a number of days on this room with this sick man. Do you guys have every other rooms?” They usually had been like, “We don’t.”

After which we had been like, “This resort is large. What do you imply you don’t have any rooms?” They didn’t have any White individual rooms, Western rooms. What that they had was conventional Japanese rooms. However the Individuals who’ve been there earlier than haven’t been ready to make use of these rooms since you sleep on the bottom on a futon as a result of the desk is about so that you can kneel and sit cross-legged, as a result of the bathe is constructed so that you can squat and sit in. The entire thing was organized round an individual with the ability to transfer by the atmosphere. Even the controls for the room had been arrange at sitting top. So I used to be like, “Oh, no drawback, I acquired it,” they usually had been like, “Actually? You are able to do it? Take a look at you, you’re an enormous man,” and I used to be like, “It’s no drawback. Belief me, I can squat.”

Brett McKay: Okay, so squatting is one. The following check to speak about is the outdated man steadiness check. What is that this one?

Kelly Starrett: We have now this good friend named Chris Hinshaw, who’s an unbelievable coach, and he tried to provide you with a check the place he might beat his children at, and this problem is all about steadiness. And one of many issues that we all know is that fall danger within the aged is gnarly, however after we began engaged on foot power and foot capability and steadiness in our athletes, labored it into video games, made ’em spend extra time on one leg urgent, single-leg deadlifts, issues like that, man, their athleticism went by the roof. And so what we realized is that we wanted some higher methods to problem folks’s vary of movement and their balancing management simply day-to-day, little micro-balances, as a result of give it some thought, somebody falls in your loved ones like, Go to this steadiness class as a result of your steadiness acquired so unhealthy and I’ve to go get formal coaching? That’s loopy. Look, right here’s a easy check for everybody, it’s known as the SOLEC. Prepared for it? Standing one leg, eyes closed. Stand on one leg, don’t put your foot down for 20 seconds. I wager you’re gonna be shocked at what occurs once I take away your eyes. And what seems is that in case your ft are stiff, in case your ft are at all times in foot coffins, footwear, in case your ft aren’t sturdy, you’re actually gonna battle. In case you don’t have good anchor vary of movement, it’s gonna be troublesome for you.

And what we’re attempting to do is simply deliver this consciousness of steadiness and play ought to be taking place in sports activities. So if you happen to’re driving mountain bikes and taking part in soccer and pickleball and also you’re transferring your physique, likelihood is this won’t be an issue for you. However for lots of people who usually are not doing these issues, you’re gonna be shocked at how unhealthy your steadiness is, and it’s solely gonna worsen until we play with it. So the outdated man steadiness check is de facto easy. Each time you set your footwear and socks on, do it one leg at a time. So stand in your left leg, put your proper sock on, don’t put your foot down, put your shoe on, tie it, don’t put your foot down. You’re gonna have to succeed in down and seize it, you’re gonna should steadiness. And so each single time you set your footwear and socks on, you possibly can follow just a little bit of 1 or two minutes of steadiness, and I assure you it’s gonna kick your butt.

Brett McKay: Yeah, and then you definately speak about it, your own home, you’ve gotten completely different simply steadiness issues you are able to do. Possibly you set like… You simply might put like a 2 x 4 in your own home and simply stroll accross.

Kelly Starrett: Oh, nailed it. How about this? You possibly can put a broomstick down and simply steadiness on the broomstick. However I’m an enormous fan of getting a dynamic work atmosphere. Effectively, I would like alternative. I wanna be capable of perch towards a bar stool, I wanna stand, I wanna… However on the bottom, I’ve a bunch of steadiness stuff, so I simply do that whereas I’m at work. If I’m on calls, I’m standing on a factor known as a SlackBlock, which is sort of a moveable slack line in your own home. It’s tiny. It doesn’t take you a lot area. And I’m standing on one leg, balancing on the SlackBlock whereas I’m speaking on the cellphone. And so I get so many hours each week of engaged on my steadiness. Does it enhance my biking? Sure. Does it enhance my snowboarding? Sure. Does it enhance my lifting? Sure.

Brett McKay: One other follow you speak about is simply standing extra, strolling extra, transferring extra all through the day. When you’ve got a desk job, it doesn’t should be that you just’re in a chair eight hours. There’s other ways you possibly can work, proper?

Kelly Starrett: Sure. And if you happen to… Look, I don’t speak about this a lot, however I had the nice pleasure of working with a former US President. I’ve labored with and supported a few presidents, and this one president was a fairly prolific guide author, however couldn’t write at a standing desk. So what we needed to do was create an atmosphere for this former president to get extra motion on the desk as a result of he felt like his greatest writing occurred when he was nonetheless. And in order that meant we wanted to guarantee that we had been introducing a spot to place his foot and a chair that wiggled extra, and what I would like you to understand is that we didn’t provide you with this arbitrarily. Harvard defines sedentary way of life as sitting greater than six hours a day. That’s an mixture, that’s all of your sitting. Which means driving within the automotive, selecting up your child, it’s all of that. So what we’re attempting to do will not be battle our physiology, nevertheless it seems…

So proper now, I’m speaking to you at a standing desk, however I’m really perching on a bar stool. So I’ve acquired my foot on the bottom, I’ve acquired one foot up, and on this place, as a result of I’m perching and I’m not sitting, I’m really above this factor known as one-and-a-half metabolic equivalence, which is how a lot power my physique is utilizing to simply perform within the background, however the sedentariness is that falling beneath that one-and-a-half. So sitting in most chairs, you fall beneath one-and-a-half, and that’s what we’re attempting to not do. I would like you to build up sufficient non-exercise exercise that you just really go to sleep.

One of many issues that we discovered was that lots of people who’re figuring out weren’t really transferring, nonetheless didn’t really get sufficient sleep or discover that that they had sufficient sleep stress. What we discovered was that working with Delta Drive, of all of the expertise that that they had entry to, that they had their guys stroll 12,000 to fifteen,000 steps a day along with their coaching, and it knocked down all their insomnia issues. It actually began to make all the pieces higher. So if you happen to wanna adapt higher to your coaching, you wanna go to sleep quicker, you wanna really feel higher, you might want to take a look at how a lot your complete motion is, and conversely, how you can restrict your complete sedentary time.

Brett McKay: And this does a variety of issues, it’s gonna filter out your system, you talked about that earlier, motions lotion, so that you’re gonna transfer and never really feel achy. After which, yeah, I believe the sleep element is de facto necessary, I’ve observed that as nicely, once I transfer extra, I’ve the very best sleep. The most effective sleep of my life was when Kate and I went to Italy for, I don’t know, she was doing a few of college factor. Went to Italy, you stroll round Rome all day.

Kelly Starrett: You stroll 20,000, 30,000 steps a day.

Brett McKay: Yeah, in all probability. Yeah, it was insane the quantity we walked. And I keep in mind, we acquired to the resort, simply laid down, we had been like, “Oh, we’re simply taking a nap,” and we had been… It was like 15 hours later…

Kelly Starrett: Youngsters come again from summer time camp they usually’re simply exhausted and sunburned, that’s the sport, however for adults. And also you simply actually nailed it. And what I would like folks to know is we are able to come at this any method you need, however one of many ways in which’s necessary to me is that it’s a hidden calorie burner in my day. So I really like dessert, I really like ice cream, I really like cookies. I’m by no means gonna flip these issues down, ever. In the event that they’re mixed, it’s even higher, however after we wrote ‘Deskbound,’ my spouse discovered just a little conversion, just a little calculator, and if she simply stood and didn’t sit at her desk throughout her work day, in the middle of a 12 months it was 100,000 energy. I outweigh her by virtually 100 kilos, that’s 170,000 additional energy I’d burn yearly, that’s like 35 marathons, and all I’ve to do is simply not sit whereas I’m working. I’m speaking about perching, fidget, messing round, stroll just a little bit. And see that we didn’t say, “You need to get 10,000 steps,” we noticed that all the advantages actually begin to kick in at 6,000 to eight,000 steps, which is de facto affordable if you happen to simply begin throwing in brief walks after your meals, you are taking a name, you go for just a little stroll in your neighborhood. It’s simple to get 6,000 to eight,000 steps. However the common grownup will get lower than 3,000, so it’s troublesome for me to be delicate to your foot ache and your Achilles and your junky tissues, if you happen to’re not transferring extra throughout the day, which suggests you simply should be extra acutely aware of it.

Brett McKay: And that is necessary, this every day motion is necessary, notably for individuals who are… I simply stated exercising usually, ’trigger they’re considering, I’m good, I acquired my hour of cardio in and I acquired my hour of weight coaching in, however you’re…

Kelly Starrett: Yeah, smashed it.

Brett McKay: You’re in all probability nonetheless sedentary.

Kelly Starrett: That’s proper.

Brett McKay: Yeah.

Kelly Starrett: And if you happen to’ve ever flown on an airplane and look down and also you’re like, “Why do my ankles… I’ve cankles, what’s up my ankles are swollen.” That’s what we’re speaking about. Your lymphatic system is backing up since you didn’t transfer your muscle tissue, you ended up accumulating fluid in your ankles, that’s edema. However actually what’s taking place there may be that it’s a failure of… It’s why… In case you ever go within the hospital, they’re like, pump your legs, do calf pumps. Listed below are this stuff, we don’t need you to get a DVT. That deep vein thrombosis occurs as a result of persons are sedentary within the hospital they usually’re so freaked out about it, they rent a bodily therapist to come back in to inform you to wiggle your ft.

Brett McKay: Okay. So we talked about motion, are you able to get your steps in, don’t sit down all day, you don’t have to face up all day, however simply transfer round. You talked about sleep, if you happen to’re having issues sleeping, transferring quite a bit will assist you to sleep. Vitamin, what function does diet… You’re a bodily therapist, and one of many first belongings you ask is, what are you consuming? What function does diet play in restoration and simply our skill to maneuver nicely?

Kelly Starrett: Vitamin for higher or for worse, grow to be id politics for therefore many individuals, and it’s an id, and it’s a interest, and it’s a sport. And it’s a full contact sport. In case you get on the Web and speak about your food regimen. Universally, what we are able to begin to say is everybody on the planet has protein minimums, you must get this quantity of protein, and a extremely affordable quantity for everybody is 0.7 grams per pound of physique weight, which seems, if you happen to’re sedentary, that’s in all probability sufficient. However if you happen to’re over 50 otherwise you’re exercising or attempting to alter your physique composition, it in all probability is just a little bit nearer to 1 gram per pound physique weight. So that you’re keto. Cool. You’re carnivore, cool. You’re paleo, cool. You’re Whole30 cool. You’re vegan or vegetarian, cool, simply present me you get this a lot protein.

And what we discover is if you happen to’re attempting to alter your physique composition otherwise you’re attempting to get better, however you don’t have the constructing blocks available to try this, you’re not gonna see the good points you need, both method for physique composition or in any other case. However the different a part of that’s that primarily based on some actually good knowledge, we discover that individuals don’t get sufficient micro-nutrients. There’s not a single research on this planet that claims bettering your fiber consumption doesn’t enhance your well being. The best method to try this is definitely eat fruit and veggies, and so what we discovered is predicated on one in all our mates, EC Synkowski, her firm is OptimizeMe diet. She has one thing known as the 800-gram problem, and each single day, she challenges folks to eat 800 grams of fruit and veggies, and also you’re like, “I don’t like greens,” cool, you eat fruits.

I don’t eat apples. Cool, you do eat berries and rutabaga. I don’t actually care. However it seems after we get extra micronutrients in, all of the polyphenols, all of the nutritional vitamins, all of the minerals, you are able to do that with 4 massive apples a day. However after we get into folks’s diets, and we’re attempting to speak about delicate tissue well being and connective tissue well being, and mind, well being no matter it’s, glow, intestine well being seems fiber and micronutrients and protein make the idea. For people who find themselves attempting to shed extra pounds, after we ask them to eat extra and broaden their selections, it’s the primary time of their life, they’re like, “Holy shit, I needed to eat a lot to fulfill these minimums?” We’re like, “Yeah, welcome to it.” A pound of cherries is 230 energy. Go forward and OD. Let me know what occurs. What you’re gonna see is there’s a lot meals out there to… We don’t wanna be restrictive anymore, we wish folks to hit this baseline.

Brett McKay: In case you ate a pound of cherries I believe you’d be on the bathroom.

Kelly Starrett: It’s an illustrative level. Eat a pound of melon. Eat 4 apples, you recognize, what I imply. It truly is… And also you’re all of a sudden, I’m like, yeah, you recognize, the opposite day, I went to Dealer Joe’s acquired myself up a flat of blackberries, they had been simply beautiful, and I ate the whole factor, it was like 400 grams, 350-400 grams, virtually half of my micronutrients for the day, and it was 230 energy.

Brett McKay: Yeah. It’s not like…

Kelly Starrett: I really like cookies. One cookie from Starbucks is like 350 energy. So what we get is all of this profit the place I’m full, I’m getting all these vitamins. Someway we demonize fruit. That was ridiculous, the place like fruit is sugar. What a bunch of horse crap that’s. It’s not the bananas and apples which are the issue. In case you eat extra micronutrients and fruit and veggies, you’re gonna protein, your physique will begin to flip the lights again on.

Brett McKay: So that is nice, after which on the finish of the guide, you’ve gotten a schedule for folks to observe in the event that they’re attempting to determine how can I incorporate all these things in my day-to-day. And as you stated, you don’t should make time. Like, I’m gonna do an hour of my constructed to maneuver routine, no it’s like…

Kelly Starrett: Yeah, no.

Brett McKay: Simply you get up, I’m gonna do that factor, I’m gonna get my steps in, every time I’m taking a break or on the cellphone, I’m gonna stroll round. I’m gonna get down within the squat, you possibly can simply do that stuff as… Like well being shouldn’t be a block in your schedule, it ought to simply be part of your day.

Kelly Starrett: Yeah, what we’ve discovered is after we handed this factor to our world champion athletes, they had been at all times viewing it by the lens of I wanna go quicker, I don’t wanna do it extra usually, they usually discovered blind spots that allow them to work more durable. And after we utilized it and gave this to non-exercisers, like we have now some publishers who work with us within the UK who usually are not exercisers and who love pork pies. They had been like, “Simply studying this, modified my framework and the way I perceived the world round me, and it modified me in making completely different refined selections,” that each one compound over time to essentially make radical modifications the place you possibly can really feel higher and once more, work more durable and present up and really feel more energizing. That’s actually the sport.

Brett McKay: Effectively, Kelly, this has been a fantastic dialog. The place can folks go to study extra in regards to the guide and your work?

Kelly Starrett: Go to builttomove.com. We’ve acquired… Really, when the guide comes out, we’ve acquired a 21-day Constructed To Transfer problem, it’s free. And it’s mainly a video a day simply form of supporting a few of these concepts, simply to deliver you thru, you possibly can intention your folks at it. We’re @thereadystate on all our socials, and if you’re taken with extra about how you can assess your physique extra fully, we’ve acquired the app and all the pieces else.

Brett McKay: Unbelievable. Effectively, Kelly Starrett, thanks on your time. It’s been a pleasure.

Kelly Starrett: All the time a pleasure. Hold placing out the great phrase, my good friend.

Brett McKay: Thanks, sir. My visitor at the moment was Kelly Starrett. He’s the co-author of the guide, Constructed To Transfer. It’s out there on amazon.com and guide shops in all places. Yow will discover extra details about his work at his web site at thereadystate.com. Additionally verify at our present notes at aom.is/builttomove, the place you could find hyperlinks to sources, the place we delve deeper into this matter.

Effectively, that wraps up one other version of The AOM Podcast, make sure that to verify on our web site at artofmanliness.com, the place you could find our podcast archives, in addition to hundreds of articles written over time about just about something you possibly can consider. And if you happen to’d prefer to get pleasure from ad-free episodes of The AOM Podcast, you are able to do so on Stitcher Premium. Head over to stitcherpremium.com, enroll, use code manliness at take a look at for a free month trial. When you’re signed up, obtain the Stitcher app on Android or iOS and you can begin having fun with ad-free episodes of the AOM podcast. And if you happen to haven’t completed so already, I’d admire if you happen to take one minute to offer us a overview on Apple Podcast on Spotify, helps out quite a bit. And if you happen to’ve completed that already, thanks. Please contemplate sharing the present with a good friend or member of the family you assume would get one thing out of it. As at all times, thanks for the continued help. Till subsequent time, it’s Brett McKay reminding you to not solely take heed to the AOM podcast, however put what you’ve heard into motion.

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *